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和孩子探讨自杀这件事

2018-06-23    来源:壹心理    编辑:Sarah Stanford    浏览次数:103

Suicide and self-harm remain taboo topics in schools, despite the fact youth suicide has reached a ten year high.


青少年自杀率已创十年新高,但自杀和自我伤害类话题在学校依然是禁忌。


Recent statistics show around eight children and young people die by suicide each week in Australia. Around one in ten self-harm during their teenage years. This loss of life means that the topic is too important not to talk about, but parents and teachers are often concerned that talking about suicide or self-harm may put ideas in young, impressionable minds.


近期数据显示澳大利亚每周大概有八个未成年自杀身亡,另大约十分之一的青少年曾做出自我伤害行为。这年轻生命的逝去,意味着自杀和自我伤害的课题太重要,大家是不能不谈的。是,家长和老师们总担心,如果跟青少年探讨这类课题,反而使他们萌生消极的想法,毕竟青少年是很容易受到外在影响的。


Teachers and parents are often concerned about putting ideas in students' heads. They worry talking about it more will lead students to swap strategies and compare wounds, and whether there are resources to support additional disclosures.


老师和家长们在与学生讨论这类课题时,经常担心将消极的想法放入学生的意识中。他们认为,过多的讨论会导致同学之间交换自我伤害方式,甚至互相比较伤口多大多严重。除此之外,他们也担心资源不足,无法为新个案提供支撑。


The World Suicide Prevention Day (September 10) and RUOK Day (September 14) campaigns are encouraging people to have honest conversations about suicide and mental health. To do so, we need to dispel the myths that encourage silence on these topics.


910号的世界预防自杀日”(World Suicide Prevention Day914号的你还好吗日”(RUOK Day),旨在鼓励大家用真诚的态度讨论自杀和心理健康等话题。由于这类话题使人倾向避而不谈,大家必须解开人们在这方面的误解。



- 01 -

Why do we need to talk about self-harm and suicide?

大家为什么要讨论自我伤害和自杀的话题?


A prevailing myth about self-harm is that people do it for attention. If we follow this logic, we can assume that we will naturally identify those who are engaging in self-harm or considering suicide. Overwhelmingly, research does not support this idea. Only around half of young people who self-harm disclose the behaviour to anyone. Young people often go to great lengths to hide self-harm.


有关自我伤害的一个普遍误解,就是人们伤害自己是为了得到关注。如果真是这样,那么照理来说,大家应该很容易就能认出谁正在自我伤害或者想自杀。但是,诸多研结果不支撑这种逻辑。只有一半自我伤害的青少年会把自己行为告诉别人,而且青少年往往想尽办法隐瞒自己的自残行为。


It can be very hard to admit self-harm or suicidal thoughts. People may fear a negative response or worry that information will be spread without their consent. Some young people may not view their behaviour as a problem. Self-harm is often a way of trying to cope with overwhelming emotions, and some people may feel that this strategy is "working".


对那些想要自我伤害或自杀的青少年来说,承认这些想法是很不容易的一件事。他们可能害怕面对别人否定的反应或者担心消息在未经他们许可的情况下散播开来。有些年轻人甚至不认为他们的行为是种问题。很多时候,自我伤害的行为其实是青少年试图应付泛滥情绪的一种方法,有可能还认为这是个“有效策略


Teachers and parents might be on the look-out for warning signs for self-harm or suicide, such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, or experiencing stressful life events. However, our recent research highlights that not all young people who self-harm fit this profile. Yes, we need to keep an eye out for self-harm, suicidal behaviour, and other mental health difficulties, but unfortunately this is not enough.


虽然老师与家长们都会留意自我伤害和自杀的征兆,比如抑郁焦虑自卑生活中压力事件,但是大家的最新研究却显示不是所有自我伤害的青少年都会呈现这些兆。大家当然要留意任何自我伤害行为、自杀行为和其他心理健康问题,但这些还远远不够。


As a community, we need proactive, positive strategies to reduce youth self-harm and suicide. Schools are on the front line of this work because they provide the greatest access to young people.


作为一个社区,大家要采取主动积极的策略去减少青年人自杀和自我伤害的行为。学校就是这项工作的前线因为这里就是能接触到最多青少年的地方



- 02 -

Will discussing self-harm and suicide encourage it?

讨论自我伤害和自杀,会不会鼓励这种行为?


This is a common concern from school staff and parents. There is emerging evidence suggesting that selected self-harm and suicide programs:


校方人员和家长经常担心讨论自我伤害和自杀可能会鼓励这种行为。但是近期的研究证明,一些特定的自我伤害和自杀预防计划



  • do not increase self-harm thoughts or behaviours;

  • 不会增加自我伤害的想法和行为

  • reduce suicide attempts and severe suicidal ideation;

  • 会减少自杀尝试次数和自杀念头的严重性

  • improve knowledge and attitudes; and

  • 能够帮助人们增长常识、改善

  • increase help-seeking behaviour.

  • 增加求助意识和行



ongoing research is needed to strengthen the evidence for prevention programs, taking into account youth perspectives and measuring suicide and self-harm related outcomes. At this point in time, research findings indicate that schools can talk about self-harm and suicide positively and safely when approached in the right way.


如果要更进一步证明预防计划的效益,就要继续进行研究。这些研究必须考虑到年轻人的思维也要对自杀和自我伤害的相关结果进行衡量现有的研究结果表明只要用正确的方法,学校可以让有关自杀和自我伤害的讨论以积极、安全的形式进行



- 03 -

How do we have these conversations safely?

怎么做才能安全地讨论这些话题?


First and foremost, we need to build supportive communities so that young people are willing to disclose self-harm and suicidal thoughts. A teenager spends 30+ hours a week at school, but being around people does not automatically provide genuine connection, where each young person feels safe and supported. This isn't an easy task to accomplish, but it can’t be neglected among the hustle of programs and policies.


首先大家要建立具支撑性的社区,创造有安全感的氛围让青少年愿意透露他们自我伤害和自杀的想法。一名青少年每周在校时间超过30个小时,然而,他们虽然身处人群心灵之间未必能真正建立连接。想让每个青年人都感受到安全和踏实不容易,可是大家不能在实施众多计划和政策的过程中忽略这个重要的任务


So we need to implement evidence-based self-harm and suicide prevention programs. Research and practice indicates that programs should be framed within broader mental health programs that focus on protective behaviours and strengthening resilience. Programs should be available to all students, not just those who appear to be at risk. Programs should educate and empower, and should not include graphic images or graphic descriptions of behaviour.


因此,大家实施的预防计划需要以实证为本。过去的研究和实践指出这些计划应该包含在更广泛的精神健康计划中,这样才能把关注点放在培养预防性行为和加强韧性上这些计划应该针对所有学生,不仅仅是有自我伤害倾向的学生,并且应该通过教来帮助学生拥有更多面对困难的勇气。实行计划过程中不宜呈现自残行为的任何血腥画面或描述


It is likely that discussing self-harm and suicide will result in identifying new cases that were previously unknown to the school. While this is a positive outcome, this can place a greater burden on already stretched welfare teams. Schools can prepare for this by ensuring staff know the protocols following disclosure, and establishing good relationships with external services.


与学生讨论自杀以及自我伤害的话题,很有可能发现学校前所未知的个案虽然是好现象,但是却会给本来已经不胜负荷的福利团队带来更多负担。所以,学校应该为此做好准备:学校除了要确保所有校方人员熟悉新个案的善后步骤之外,也要与外界福利机构建立良好的合作关系。


It's not just staff that need to know how to respond. Teens are most likely to disclose to a friend rather than an adult. When disclosing to an adult, it's more likely to be a parent rather than a counsellor or teacher. This means all members of the community need to know how to respond in safe and supportive ways.


除了教学人员之外,孩子身边的人更应该懂得如何应对。比起跟大人倾诉,青少年更愿意和同龄朋友诉说。如果是和成年人倾诉,这个人很有可能是父母而不是咨询师或者老师这意味着,孩子社区里的所有人都要明白怎样安全地回应孩子们的表达,并向他们提供适当支撑。


People should be aware of support available outside school too. online services may be less intimidating for those reluctant to seek help.


所有人也都该认识校园外的资源对那些不愿意寻求帮助的孩子们来说,网络上的服务或许不会那么令人恐惧,说不定可以帮助们迈出求助的第一步。


Talking about self-harm and suicide isn't easy, but it's a conversation that can save lives.


直面讨论自杀和自我伤害类话题固然不容易,但是进行这样的讨论,或许能挽救诸多生命。

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